Elk woord heeft meer perspectieven dan dat van jezelf

Sinds de start van zijn promotieonderzoek in 2000, heeft Wim Jurg in het kader daarvan alle definities bijgehouden in de door hem gelezen literatuur en opgeslagen in een Excel-document: Wim Jurg (2020-09-13) Merkontwikkelingsdefinities. Vanuit zijn econometrische achtergrond begint meten namelijk logischerwijze met het kiezen van een bij voorkeur bestaande omschrijving van hetgeen je wilt gaan meten. Dit is dus een keuzeproces, waarbij je eerst goed moet kijken welke definities er zoal zijn van hetgeen je wilt gaan meten. Dit document maakt je niet alleen duidelijk welke perspectief je impliciet zelf hebt op dit begrip, maar ook hoeveel andere perspectieven er zijn. En dus welke beperkingen je meting onherroepelijk heeft. Goed om je je daarvan bewust te zijn.

Nederlandstalige merkdefinities

In de Nederlandse merkliteratuur komen bijvoorbeeld de volgende definities voor:

  1. Ieder teken dat in staat is de waren of diensten van een onderneming te onderscheiden en dat in materiële dan wel immateriële zin een zekere betekenis kan hebben voor consumenten (Boer, 2003: 16; naar Riezebos)
  2. Mix van energiestromen die een product of dienst waardevol en onderscheidend maakt voor de gebruiiker/koper, de ondernemer en alle andere doelgroepen (Boer, 2003: 18)
  3. Geconcretiseerde relaties. Ze ontstaan uit de bedoeling van de maker, om voor zijn klanten iets te doen en het zijn juist dezelfde klanten die een merk betekenis geven door het als zodanig te herkennen (Brandmeyer & Deichsel, 1999: 21)
  4. Ding-Gestalt, waar ik me helemaal thuis bij voel, die bij mijn leven hoort en in mijn bloed is gaan zitten (Brandmeyer & Deichsel, 1999: 31/2). (3) Een over lange periode onveranderlijke Gestalt (Brandmeyer & Deichsel, 1999: 32)
  5. Levende wezens die met meer of minder krachtige blik verkondigen wat wel of niet geldt (Brandmeyer & Deichsel, 1999: 36)
  6. ‘Organismen van ideeën’ gerechtigd om richtlijnen vast te stellen (Brandmeyer & Deichsel, 1999: 36)
  7. Centrale node in een associatief netwerk, waarin het rechtstreeks dan wel indirect verbonden is met (een veelheid van) associaties (Franzen & Bouwman, 1999: 219)
  8. Associatienetwerk in het geheugen (Franzen, 2000: 201). (3) Associatief netwerk waarin alles met alles samenhangt (Franzen & Van den Berg, 2002: 160)
  9. Relatie tussen mensen (Geursen, 2006: 19)
  10. Tekens die de waren en diensten van een onderneming kunnen onderscheiden (GVR Slagzinnenregister, 2002: 60)
  11. Teken dat het aanbod van een onderneming onderscheidt en de oorsprong ervan waarmerkt en dat pas door deponering en goedkeuring waarde krijgt (Kapferer, 1999: 12)
  12. Teken (dus extern), dat als functie heefty de verborgen kwaliteiten van het produkt te onthullen die niet door zintuiglijke waarneming (zien, voelen, horen, ruiken) zijn vast te stellen en eventueel ook de kwaliteiten die wel door ervaring zijn vast te stellen maar die de consument, om geen risico’s te nemen, niet wil vaststellen (Kapferer, 1999: 12)
  13. Beschermd teken, dat geschikt is om onderscheid te maken tussen producten en diensten van verschillende ondernemingen (Latour, 1998: 21; juridisch)
  14. Het product en het imago dat aan een naam verbonden is (Latour, 1998: 186)
  15. In een beeldmerk en naam geconcretiseerde associaties die worden opgeroepen bij een bepaald product (Postma, 2002: 92)
  16. Volgens de etymologie zou het woord ‘brand’ een verbastering zijn van het oude Noorse wood ‘brandr’, hetgeen verwijst naar het brandmerken van vee (Riezebos, 2001: 14)
  17. Ieder teken dat in staat is de waren of diensten van een onderneming te onderscheiden (Riezebos, 2001: 53)
  18. Ieder teken dat in staat is de waren of diensten van een onderneming te onderscheiden en dat in matriele dan wel immateriele zin een zekere betekenis kan hebben voor consumenten (Riezebos, 2001: 88)
  19. Aanduiding voor de namen en visuele vormgeving van consumentenproducten als M&M’s, Heinz en Bovril (Simmons, 2001: 19; naar vroeger)
  20. Vertrouwen tussen producent en consument (Strijp & De Witte, 2003: 10)
  21. Naam, beeld of symbool of combinatie daarvan waarmee een organisatie zichzelf voor kopers herkenbaar (en aantrekkelijk) maakt en haar producten doet onderscheiden van die van concurrenten, en dat voorts, ter bescherming voor het exclusief gebruik ervan, kan worden geregistreerd (Verhage, 2001: 296).

Engelstalige merkdefinities

In de Engelstalige merkliteratuur komen onder meer de volgende definities van ‘brand’ voor:

  1. A distinguishing name and/or symbol – such as logo, trademark, or package design – intended to identify the goods or services of either one seller or a group of sellers, and to differentiate those goods or services from those of competitors (Aaker, 1991: ix)
  2. Virtually anything on the planet with an ability to sustain an attraction or influence among people (Allan & Simmons in Clifton, Simmons et al., 2004: 113)
  3. A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is trademark. A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller. If used for the firm as a whole, the preferred term is trade name (AMAsite, 2005)
  4. Consumer’s idea of a product (Blackstone, 1992: 79)
  5. A name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors (Boer, 2003; after Kotler)
  6. Named product or service (Clifton, Simmons et al., 2004: xii)
  7. Trade marks (Clifton, Simmons et al., 2004: xii)
  8. Customers’ and others’ beliefs and expectations about products and services sold under a specific trade mark or about the compnay which provides them. Also brand equity (Clifton, Simmons et al., 2004: xii)
  9. Mark that both identifies and differentiates something (Davies & Chun, 2003: 50)
  10. In part, a brand is a set of promises. It implies trust, consistency, and a defined set of expectations. The strongest brands in the world own a place in the consumer’s mind, and when they are mentioned almost everyone thinks of the same things (Davis, 2002: 3)
  11. Intangible, but critical component an organization ‘owns’, that represents a contract with the customer, relative to the level of quality and value delivered tied to a product or service (Davis, 2002: 31). (3) Set of promises. It implies trust, consistency, and a defined set of expectations (Davis, 2002: 31)
  12. Promise of what our company stands for and what we deliver to our customers (Davis, 2002: 31; after David Friedman)
  13. Net present value of the cumulative trust that the owners’ past marketing efforts have earned from customers (De Chernatony, 2006: 4; after Ed Burke, former CEO of Johnson & Johnson)
  14. A name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition (De Chernatony, 2006: 29; after American Marketing Association, 1960)
  15. Ensuring a legally enforceable statement of ownership (De Chernatony, 2006: 4, 29)
  16. A product or service to which human beings attach a bundle of tangible (functional product and service characteristics) and intangible (emotional and/or symbolic) meanings that add value. A brand has one strategic purpose and that is to differentiate itself from competitors (ESOMAR, website)
  17. A name, term, sign, symbol, design or some combination of these elements, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers to differentiate them from those of competitors (Franzen & Moriarti, 2009: 5; after AMA)
  18. Complex, interrelated system of management decisions and consumer reactions that identifies a product (goods, services or ideas), builds awareness of it, and creates meaning for it (Franzen & Moriarti, 2009: 6)
  19. System that consists of the physical reality of a brand (e.g. organizations, factories, offices, products, communication, packaging; and the environment where the user encounters the product); the social interpretation of this reality (as depicted by perceptions and attitudes and habits shared within a culture or subculture); and the interpretation of the mental reality in the form of a brand associative system (Franzen & Moriarti, 2009: 16)
  20. Network of interacting systems – that is initiated, steered, and created by manufacturers, and perceived, interpreted, and evaluated by consumers (Franzen & Moriarti, 2009: 16)
  21. Means of representing and identfying a product or a range of products (Franzen & Moriarti, 2009: 100). (5) Promise that the product will deliver a satisfactory performance and meet the customer’s expectations (Franzen & Moriarti, 2009: 307)
  22. A name, term, design, symbol, that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers (Franzen & Moriarti, 2009: 18; after AMA)
  23. A name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition (Groenhaug et al, 2002: 465; Lum & Lum, 2005: 13; after American Marketing Association)
  24. A distinguishing name and/or symbol – such as logo, trademark, or package design – intended to identify the goods or services of either one seller or a group of sellers, and to differentiate those goods or services from those of competitors (Hanby, 1999: 9; after AMA, 1960)
  25. Complex cognitive entities created by consumers in reaction to their toal set of experiences (Hanby, 1999: 9; after King, 1970, 1973)
  26. Holistic entities with many of the characteristics of living beings (Hanby, 1999: 9; after Lannon & Cooper, 1983)
  27. Something that is owned by buyers and other stakeholders (Ind, 2003: 3)
  28. Transforming idea that converts the tangible into something of value (Ind, 2003: 3)
  29. Core meaning of the modern cooperation (Jackson, 2003: xix; after Klein, No Logo)
  30. Identifying mark burnt on livestock (Jackson, 2003: 51)
  31. Type of product manufactured under a particular name (Jackson, 2003: 51)
  32. Named good (Jackson, 2003: 52)
  33. A name, term, design, symbol, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors (Jackson, 2003: 54; after AMA in the dark ages of 1960)
  34. Mixture of tangible and intangible attributes, symbolized in a trademark, which if properly managed, creates influence and generates value (Jackson, 2003: 59; after Interband)
  35. Promise of standards (Jackson, 2003: 63; after Tania Mason, editor of the Branding section of Marketing magazine)
  36. Respectables for belief in today’s society (Jackson, 2003: 66)
  37. Idea, stemming from belief, that through its consistent identity, experience and the positive emotional investment (PEI) of stakehloders, creates sustainable benefits (Jackson, 2003: 86; Jackson’s own definition)
  38. Beliefs that form the basis for ideas (Jackson, 2003: 96; Jackson’s own definition)
  39. Ideas with names on (Kitchin in Ind, 2003: 71)
  40. Bundles of ideas, permitting the rapid exchange of meaning within conversations (Kitchin in Ind, 2003: 73)
  41. The word “brand” is derived from the Old Norse Word “brandr”, which means “to burn”, as brands were and still are the means by which owners of livestock mark their animals to identify them (Keller, 1998: 2; after Wiley, 1992)
  42. Name, term, sign, symbol, design, or some combination of these elements, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors (Keller, 1998: 38)
  43. Something that resides in the minds of consumers (Keller, 1998: 10)
  44. Intangible assets that live in the minds and hearts of its customers (Khoshla & Sawhey, 2014: 83)
  45. Sum total of every experience a customer has with a company or product – a sum total that customers began to think of as the promise of the brand (LePla, Davis, & Parker, 2003: xiv)
  46. Trademarked name (Leventhal, 1996: 17; relative narrow notion)
  47. Image that can be used to communicate benefits and points of differentiation (Leventhal, 1996: 17; less narrow notion)
  48. Covers the entire customer experience and includes all the assets critical to delivering and communicating that experience – the product name, the advertising, the product or service, and in many cases, the distribution channel (Leventhal, 1996: 17; broad notion)
  49. Network of associations in the consumer’s mind (Lory & McCalman, 2002: 417)
  50. Promise which met consumers’ wants and needs, and more importantly, one that was delivered accordingly (Lory & McCalman, 2002: 417)
  51. Network of associations in the consumer’s mind (Lory & McCalman, 2002: 422; after Landor, Fitch, Wolff Olins and PWC)
  52. Collection of tangible and intangible assets that taken together form a perception in the minds of consumers (Lory & McCalman, 2002: 423; after Interbrand)
  53. Amalgam of values (Lory & McCalman, 2002: 423)
  54. Icon of a culture (Mark & Pearson, 2001: 1)
  55. Network of associations with an object – associations with a product, a service, an enterprise, a human, a political party, etc. (Maathuis, Rodenburg & Sikkel, 2004: 333; after Aker & Davis, 2000; Keller, 2000).
  56. Synergetic sum of perceptions and associations arrived through the experience of benefits, and receipt of communications (McWilliam & Dumas, 1997: 267)
  57. Marketing identities for products (Meyer, 2015: 4)
  58. Anything that sets a seller apart from other sellers of the same product (Meyer, 2015: 4)
  59. From the Norse word brandr, meaning ‘fire’. This referred to the practice of burning a symbol onto a product to mark it (Meyer, 2015: 7)
  60. Marking cattle with a hot iron  so that each farmer knows which cows belong to whom (Meyer, 2015: 7)
  61. Separating ownership of a product by some sort of symbol (Meyer, 2015: 7)
  62. Unique identity of a company or a person (Meyer, 2015: 39)
  63. Sum total of relationships among stakeholders (Meyers in Ind, 2003: 23)
  64. Medium through which stakeholders interact and exchange with each other (Meyers in Ind, 2003: 23)
  65. Association of a sound/image (the name ‘American Express’, the image of the Green Gard) with an idea of expectation or experience (perceived values, a service promise and usage satisfaction) (Meyers in Ind, 2003: 23)
  66. Stakeholder-led relationship system governed by freedom of choice (Meyers in Ind, 2003: 25)
  67. Person’s gut feeling about a product, service, or company (Neumeier, 2003: 2)
  68. Platonic ideal – a concept shared by society to identify a specific class of things (Neumeier, 2003: 3)
  69. Cult object … it has charisma (Randall, 1997: 3; after Judie Lannon)
  70. The breadth (how many) and the strength (how strong) of the brand’s links to relevant cues (Romaniuk & Sharp, 2016: 70)
  71. Name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of others (Rowles, 2014: 7; after American Marketing Dictionary, 2013)
  72. Derived from the Old Norse word brandr, meaning ‘to burn’, and was used in reference to marking cattle by burning the owner’s brand onto them (Rowles, 2014: 7)
  73. Sum of all of the experiences or touchpoints that you have with an organization (Rowles, 2014: 124)
  74. Memes, containing specific and differentiated ideas about companies as well as their people, products and services (Ryder in Ind, 2003: 141)
  75. Designation that the seller of a given product use to distinguish the product they sell from others (Signorelli, 2014: xxii)
  76. Name and symbols associated with a known and trusted customer experience that appeals to the head and heart (Taylor, 2003: 191)
  77. An autonomous category of products [in which the brand name is the label for a category of products sold under that name] (Van der Vorst, 2004: 13; after Boush, 1993)
  78. Embodiment of symbolic meanings (Van der Vorst, 2004: 13)
  79. Concept that is generalized and shared among organizations and customers and is signified by a variety of ‘objects’ or words (Van der Vorst, 2004: 20)
  80. Instruments for making choices that are shared by an organization and its customers (Van der Vorst, 2004: 39)
  81. Shared concepts that embody cognitive, affective, and action patterns (Van der Vorst, 2004: 74)
  82. Category of ‘things’ in the sense that it ascribes some equivalence to the knowledge and expectations people have of the products of that brand (Van der Vorst, 2004: 156).
  83. Consumer’s perception that a product or company is distinctive and offers more than the competition (Von Brachel, 1999: 43; after Noella)
  84. Living animate object (Wheeler, 2003: 118)

Duitstalige merkdefinities

In de Duitstalige merkliteratuur komen bijvoorbeeld de volgende definities van ‘Marke’ voor:

  1. Beseelte Wesen (Domizlaff, 1992: 108)
  2. Begriff im Gehirn der Masse (Domizlaff, 1992: 137, 140)
  3. Sozialer Beziehungszusammenhang (Otte, 1993: 20)
  4. “Gestalt”, [] eine kompositionellen Zusammenhag (Otte, 1993: 20)
  5. Wesentliches Gewolltes (Otte, 1993: 21)
  6. Kollektives Gedankengebilde (Otte, 1993: 21)
  7. Sozialer Wille (Otte, 1993: 22)
  8. Selbstorganisierendes System (Otte, 1993: 37)
  9. Lebendige Ganzheit (Otte, 1993: 40)
  10. Ordener, [] der irgendwie gleichartige Vorstellungen der Beteiligten hervorruft, d.h. ein grösseres Ganzes, eine makroskopische Ordnung erzeugt (Otte, 1993: 49)
  11. Umschlag von Quantität in Qualität (Otte, 1993: 57)
  12. Ganzheitliches, im Austausch mit der Umwelt befindliches System [], mit dem erkennbaren Drang, sich selber zu erhalten, auszudehnen und alle Beteiligten in ihren Verhalten gleichzurichten (Otte, 1993: 95)
  13. Morphisches Feld [], das menschliches Verhalten organisiert und dem ein Gedächtnis innewohnt (Van Riet, 1995: 298; nach Sheldrake).

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